[12], Atum was a self-created deity, the first being to emerge from the darkness and endless watery abyss that existed before creation. One of his most frequent epithets was "Lord of the Two Lands", a title also held by the king.

Before Gate nine, Atum stands confronting the coiled serpent Apophis condemning him to be overthrown and annihilated. In the binary solar cycle, the serpentine Atum is contrasted with the ram-headed scarab Khepri—the young sun god, whose name is derived from the Egyptian hpr "to come into existence". It was erected by Senusret I of the Twelfth Dynasty, and still stands in its original position. It was erected by Senusret I of the Twelfth dynasty, and still stands in its original position. In some reliefs that are mostly of Lower Egyptian Origin, such as on the shrine of Ramesses II from Pithom, Atum is the god crowning the king. His creative nature has two sides for Atum can be seen as the one who completes everything and finishes everything.
Together Geb and Nut had four children- Osiris, Isis, Set, and Nephthys. Atum’s myth merged with that of the great sun god Re, giving rise to the deity Re-Atum. [13], He is usually depicted as a man wearing either the royal head-cloth or the dual white and red crown of Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt, reinforcing his connection with kingship. [11][12][13], Atum is the god of pre-existence and post-existence. Khepri-Atum encompassed sunrise and sunset, thus reflecting the entire cycle of morning and evening. Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities, "The Egyptian Creation Myth — How the World Was Born", "OBELISK (Gr. This iconography, of course, equates him with the king and in fact one of the only details that distinguishes him from the king is the shape of his beard.

He also subdues other hostile forces in the netherworld such as the serpent Nehebu-Kau, who he overcomes by pressing his fingernail onto it's spine. In the Heliopolitan creation myth, Atum was considered to be the first god, having created himself, sitting on a mound (benben) (or identified with the mound itself), from the primordial waters (Nu). [5], Atum is one of the most important and frequently mentioned deities from earliest times, as evidenced by his prominence in the Pyramid Texts, where he is portrayed as both a creator and father to the king. In the binary solar cycle, the serpentine Atum is contrasted with the scarab-headed god Khepri—the young sun god, whose name is derived from the Egyptian hpr "to come into existence". He also provides protection to even those of non-royal blood, ensuring their safe passage past the Lake of Fire where there lurks a deadly dog-headed god who lives by swallowing souls and snatching hearts.

Atum (/ɑ-tum/), sometimes rendered as Atem or Tem, is an important deity in Egyptian mythology. In terms of his primeval nature, Atum could also be represented by the image of the primeval hill, and in the First Intermediate period, "Atum and his Hand" even appear as a divine couple on some coffins.

[14] The 68 ft (20.73 m) high red granite obelisk weighs 120 tons (240,000 lbs). Atum is one of the most important and frequently mentioned deities from earliest times, as evidenced by his prominence in the Pyramid Texts, where he is portrayed as both a creator and father to the king. Atum was linked specifically with the evening sun, while Ra or the closely linked god Khepri were connected with the sun at morning and midday. Visit & Look Up Quick Results Now On celebrandoleonardo500.com! He was a creator and sun god, together with Re, Horakhty and Khepri. Husband of Iusaaset Atum plays an important role in many of the later books of the netherworld.

Atum was the great primeval deity of Heliopolis, and his cult rose to importance as early as the Old Kingdom.

A product of the energy and matter contained in this chaos, he created his children—the first deities, out of loneliness.

Atum's name is thought to be derived from the word tem which means to complete or finish. Totality, in reference to Atum, implies an ultimate and unalterable state of perfection. egyptian mythology family tree atum mut khepri amun-RA RA khonsu sekhmet serket ptah seshat hathor thoth ma'at shu nefertum ~ isis osiris nephthys anuket khnum nieth set ~ horus ammit sobek anubis bastet four sons of horus In his netherworld role, as well as his solar aspect, he is also often presented with the head of a ram. [4] To explain how Atum did this, the myth uses the metaphor of masturbation, with the hand he used in this act representing the female principle inherent within him. Sometimes he is also shown as a serpent, the form he returns to at the end of the creative cycle, and also occasionally as a mongoose, lion, bull, lizard, or ape.[5]. [7] Atum did so through masturbation, with the hand he used in this act representing the female principle inherent within him. Atum, however, was not only the creator, but the original creation itself.

[9][10][11] Atum is the god of pre-existence and post-existence. Unable to bear his loss, Atum sent a fiery messenger, the Eye of Ra, to find his children. [3] Early myths state that Atum created the god Shu and goddess Tefnut by spitting them out of his mouth. At creation he emerged to engender himself and the gods. The brother and sister, curious about the primeval waters that surrounded them, went to explore the waters and disappeared into the darkness. Hence, the Pyramid Texts, reveals to us his close relationship with the king, "O Atum, raise this king up to you, enclose him within your embrace, for he is your son of your body for ever". In the netherworld books recorded on the walls of the New Kingdom tombs in the Valley of the Kings on the West Bank at Ancient Thebes (modern Luxor), Atum is shown as an aged, ram-headed figure who supervises the punishment of evildoers and the enemies of the sun god. However, Atum's importance was by no means limited to northern Egypt, or to the Old Kingdom. Geni requires JavaScript!

In his aspect as a solar deity, he was also depicted as a scarab and the giant scarab statue which now stands by the sacred lake at Karnak was dedicated to Atum. He produced from his own sneeze, or in some accounts, semen, Shu, the god of air, and Tefnut, the goddess of moisture. b/3EXivrc...", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Atum&oldid=986149617, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles having same image on Wikidata and Wikipedia, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 30 October 2020, at 02:45. He was strong, belligerent, short-tempered, and mean, and was the chief god of crime, illness, storms, droughts, plagues, and foreign lands.

Atum's cult centered on the city of Heliopolis (Egyptian: Annu). One of the translations of his name could be "totality", and in the Coffin Texts and elsewhere he is specifically called the "lord of totality". Yet, generally in funerary texts, he was certainly more commonly the aged form of the sun which set each evening and traveled through the underworld. [9], In the Old Kingdom, the Egyptians believed that Atum lifted the dead king's soul from his pyramid to the starry heavens. Ancient Gods Speak, The: A Guide to Egyptian Religion, Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt, The, Conceptions of God in Ancient Egypt: The One and the Many, Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses, A, Gods of the Egyptians, The (Studies in Egyptian Mythology), CopyRights 1996-2020 Tour Egypt.

Essentially, everything which existed was considered a part of the flesh of Atum, and every individual thing was said to be one of millions of the god's kas, a concept which not only stressed the gods primacy in coming before all else, but also his importance as a universal god. Representations of Atum in statuary are far less numerous than those of any other god of similar importance, and we may speculate that statues showing a king as "Lord of the Two Lands" may have also been viewed as incarnations of Atum. Separately, Re was usually considered the rising sun of the day, while Atum was the setting sun of the evening. More to come soon.

He thus had a female principle inherent within himself (specifically, his hand). Atum was linked specifically with the evening sun, while Ra or the closely linked god Khepri were connected with the sun at morning and midday. About Atum, God of Creation (Heliopolitan Mythology) Atum (/ɑ-tum/), sometimes rendered as Atem or Tem, is an important deity in Egyptian mythology. As an ape, he was sometimes armed with a bow with which to shoot his enemies. First: I opened a store!It has a poster of this, as well as updated versions of the Norse and Greek god family trees I did a while back. In fact, Atum's close relationship to the king is seen in many cultic rituals, and a papyrus dating to the Late Period which is now in the Brooklyn Museum shows the god's importance in the New Year's festival in which the king's role was reconfirmed. Atum was the monad from whom all else originally came. However, he might also be represented as a mongoose (ichneumon), lion, bull, lizard or ape. In the Heliopolitan creation myth, Atum was considered to be the first god, having created himself, sitting on a mound (benben) (or identified with the mound itself), from the primordial waters (Nu). By using magic spells, the king might even hope to surpass the power of Atum, becoming himself the supreme deity and rule as Atum over every god. Other interpretations state that he has made union with his shadow. Also, numerous small bronze coffins containing mummified eels, bearing a figure of the fish on the top of the box and an inscription incised on it, attest to yet another zoomorphic incarnation of Atum. Nevertheless, the cult of Atum continued to be important at Heliopolis, and he is often called the "Lord of Heliopolis", even after the rise of Re's influence. The Heliopolitan cosmogony holds that Atum was the god of creation whereby the world and existence sprang from primeval chaos. From the New Kingdom onward, he is often depicted on temple walls as the god inscribing royal names on the leaves of the sacred ished tree. Atum (/ɑ.tum/, Egyptian: jtm(w) or tm(w), reconstructed [jaˈtaːmuw]; Coptic .mw-parser-output .script-coptic{font-family:"New Athena Unicode","MPH 2B Damase","FreeSerif","Arial Coptic",Quivira,Analecta,Antinoou,"Sophia Nubian","Noto Sans Coptic","Segoe UI Historic","Segoe UI Symbol"}ⲁⲧⲟⲩⲙ Atoum),[3][4] sometimes rendered as Atem or Tem, is an important deity in Egyptian mythology. Thus he has been interpreted as being the 'complete one' and also the finisher of the world, which he returns to watery chaos at the end of the creative cycle. [14], Atum was a self-created deity, the first being to emerge from the darkness and endless watery abyss that existed before creation. Atum's name is thought to be derived from the verb tm which means 'to complete' or 'to finish'. [5] The only surviving remnant of Heliopolis is the Temple of Re-Atum obelisk located in Al-Masalla of Al-Matariyyah, Cairo. In fact, he is one of the eight or nine most frequently mentioned gods in the Pyramid Texts so we have a good deal of very early information regarding his mythological roles and characteristics.



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