Henry was not even 40 years old when he died, and the high hopes for an effective Imperial power in Italy died with him.[29]. [14] Nevertheless, he insisted that the current rulers in all of the Italian city-states had usurped their powers. He then married John to Elizabeth of Bohemia. Emperor Frederick outlawed his son on 5 July 1234[2] and announced his return to Germany. Henry revolted and in September formed an alliance with several German bishops and Swabian nobles. Half brother of Béatrice de Luxembourg, Predecessor: Frederick II Successor: Louis IV, Predecessor: Albert I Successor: Louis IV. [9] On 15 August 1309, Henry VII announced his intention to travel to Rome, having sent his ambassadors to Italy to prepare for his arrival, and so consequently expected his troops to be ready to travel by 1 October 1310. Heinrich had had good relations with the royal court of Paris until his royal election, but these deteriorated due to his policies in the western border area, where he claimed lost imperial rights. Despite the fact that Henry was formally betrothed to the Přemyslid princess Agnes of Bohemia,[5] daughter of King Ottokar I of Bohemia, Engelbert planned his marriage with Isabella of England, one of the daughters of King John Lackland; however, this union never took place. The German ecclesiastical and lay princes to whom fell the lot of electing the emperor had established the policy since 1273 of electing a comparatively obscure candidate to the imperial throne in order to avoid the creation of too powerful an imperial monarchy. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. Henry (VII) (1211 – 12 February ? In 1228, he had a falling-out with Duke Louis of Bavaria, who was suspected of plotting with Pope Gregory IX against Emperor Frederick II. Henry VII (German: Heinrich; c. 1275 – 24 August 1313) was the King of Germany (or Rex Romanorum) from 1308 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1312. [15] Florence was able to keep every gate open except that which faced the emperor, and it kept all of her commercial routes open. They became co-Kings, with Henry at first allowing Wenceslaus to use the title Holy Roman Emperor. Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor. Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor. [15] Nevertheless, Henry managed to restore some semblance of imperial power in parts of northern Italy. [24], At Arezzo, in September 1312, Henry proceeded to pass a sentence against Robert of Naples,[25] as a rebel vassal. Henry was kept prisoner in various places, first in Heidelberg and Alerheim Castle, later in Apulia and at Rocca San Felice in Campania. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. ." In 1310 Henry also began his journey to Italy to pacify the faction-ridden cities and receive the Lombard crown at Milan and the imperial crown at Rome. He was the first emperor of the House of Luxembourg. 1275 – 24 August 1313) was the King of Germany (or Rex Romanorum) from 1308 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1312. Encyclopedia of World Biography. Henry's sincere idealism, his respect for the imperial office and its duties, and his promise of justice attracted many men to him, including some of the most astute minds of Italy. Nevertheless, by the end of 1312, he had subdued a large part of Tuscany, and had treated his defeated enemies with great leniency. Cremona was the first to feel Henry’s wrath, after the Torriani family and their supporters[18] had fled from Milan,[16] falling on 26 April 1311, after which he razed the city walls. His death in 1251 was recorded by Matthew Paris, who claimed that both he and his older brother were poisoned (veneno interfecit).[7]. [2] Each of these contests had created bitter losers, each of whom looked to the emperor-elect for restitution. [2] Some chroniclers report that it had been an attempted suicide. [27] So began the siege of Florence, Henry possessing some 15,000 infantrymen and 2,000 cavalry, up against a combined Florentine strength of 64,000 defenders. ." [15] Henry then passed through Pavia before arriving in Genoa, where he again tried to mediate between the warring factions within the town. After the death of Henry VII, two rivals, the Wittelsbach Ludwig of Bavaria and Frederick the Handsome of the House of Habsburg, laid claim to the crown. Henry VII of Luxemburg - Holy Roman Emperor - 1308-1313. Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). With this, Heinrich came into conflict with the powerful French King Philip IV. Henry in Paradiso xxx.137f is "He who came to reform Italy before she was ready for it".

[15] While he loitered in Pisa, waiting for reinforcements from Germany, he attacked Lucca, a traditional enemy of Pisa. Von 1308 bis 1313 römisch-deutscher König, Kaiser.

In August 1503, Henry’s eldest daughter, Margaret, married James IV to bring both countries even closer together. After the extinction of the Swabian Zähringen line in 1219 Henry also received their title of a Rector of Burgundy,[4] though that title disappeared when Henry was elected king. Following the death of his father, Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund, Henry stood for election, and tied with Wenceslaus III, Duke of Saxony. [16] During his stay in the city, his wife Margaret of Brabant died.

Henry Tudor, 1457–1509, king of England 1485–1509: first king of the house of Tudor. Although Henry rewarded their submission with titles and fiefs, it did cause a great deal of resentment that only grew over time. A member of the Salian Dynasty, he was the eldest son of Emperor Conrad II of Germany and Gisela of Swabia.

Among the rulers of the Holy Roman Empire, Henry is numbered only in parentheses, as he did not exercise the sole kingship.

In 1232, Frederick came to terms with Pope Gregory, confirmed the Statutum, and had Henry swore obedience in Cividale.

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