Orange flower & leaf water absolute 51.6%, Helichrysum italicum subsp. However, pure linalool is not a sensitiser. trans- (82a) and cis-Pyranoid linalool oxide (82b) were transformed to trans- (83a) and cis-linalool oxide-3-malonate (83b), respectively. (R)-(−)-Linalool (63′), for example, occurs at a concentration of 80–85% in Ho oils from Cinnamomum camphora; rosewood oil contains ∼80%.41, Catharanthus roseus converted (+)-linalool (63) to 8-hydroxylinalool (64) (Scheme 15).39.
In six cases of dermatitis none of the individuals was sensitive to linalool on patch testing (Letizia et al 2003a). Linalool has been reported as having mildly irritant effects on the skin, producing an eczematous reaction in some people (Powers & Beasley 1985). Rat urinary metabolites of linalool were also non-mutagenic (Rockwell & Raw 1979). This microorganism, the ‘linalool strain’ as it was called, was also capable of utilizing limonene (95), citronellol (19), and geraniol (22) but failed to grow on citral (23 and 26), citronellal (20), and 1,8-cineole (128). Tadtong S, Suppawat S, Tintawee A, Saramas P, Jareonvong S, Hongratanaworakit T. Nikolić MM, Jovanović KK, Marković TL, Marković DL, Gligorijević NN, Radulović SS, Kostić M, Glamočlija JM, Soković MD. Values represent mean ± SEM (n = 3). Mutagenicity and genotoxicity: Linalool was not mutagenic in Ames tests with and without S9 (Rockwell & Raw 1979; Eder et al 1980, 1982; Ishidate et al 1984; Heck et al 1989; Di Sotto et al 2008), nor was it mutagenic in CA tests (Ishidate et al 1984; Letizia et al 2003a), or in a mouse micronucleus assay (Letizia et al 2003a). There were no reactions to 30% linalool in 179 dermatitis patients suspected of allergy to cosmetics (De Groot et al 1985). Phytocannabinoid–terpenoid interactions could produce synergy with respect to treatment of pain, inflammation, depression, anxiety, addiction, epilepsy, cancer, and fungal and bacterial infections (Russo, 2011). Carane monoterpenes undergo opposing 1,3-proton eliminations from C3 or C5 to generate the cyclopropyl ring of 2-carene (21) and 3-carene (20), respectively. Sol A.
This should be efficacious in minimizing reactions to linalool, since even the oxidized material elicited a majority of mild reactions, and not a single severe reaction. Linalool does not absorb UV light in the range of 290–400 nm and therefore would not have the potential to elicit photoirritation or photoallergy (Bickers et al 2003b). Our results also show the importance of carrying out transient expression analysis in the presence of the P19 viral suppressor of gene silencing. 3.3B) at three 3-days postinfiltration, equivalent linalool production in leaves coexpressing ApLS1 and P19 (Fig. The difference between alcohols and phenols should be recognized. Scheme 25. During the induction phase of human repeated insult patch tests, 12.7% linalool was applied to 119 volunteers for 24 hour periods, 3 days per week for 3 weeks. Quality: Orange leaf bigarade may be adulterated with the cheaper Paraguayan oil, which itself is frequently adulterated (Kubeczka 2002). Subacute and subchronic toxicity: Linalool was administered once daily for 13 weeks to the shaved backs of male and female rats in doses of 0.25, 1.0 or 4.0 g/kg. Linalool did not induce p-nitroanisole O-demethylase or aniline hydroxyalse in rat liver (Letizia et al 2003a). Linalool is seen in over 200 species of plants especially in the ones of the Botanical family, ... (MS) testing on every batch received and publishes the full GC report with extensive research on each Essential Oil. Microphyllum 17.3%. Acute toxicity: The acute oral LD50 has been reported as 2.79 g/kg in rats (Jenner et al 1964) and 2.2, 3.5 and 3.92 g/kg in mice (Letizia et al 2003a). It is recommended to add antioxidants at the time of production of the raw material. From: Nanotechnology-Based Targeted Drug Delivery Systems for Lung Cancer, 2019, Elaine Elisabetsky, in Advances in Phytomedicine, 2002. Different types of alcohols are found in essential oils of thyme grown in different situations. Carcinogenic/anticarcinogenic potential: A single application of DMBA in 0.2 mL acetone was made to the clipped skin of albino mice. Fermentation was carried out in shake cultures containing 1% linalool (63) as the sole carbon source. Hydrolysis of (±)-linallyl acetate (63-Ac) by Bacillus subtilis and other microorganisms. In a local lymph node assay, pure linalool showed no sensitizing potential (Sköld et al 2004). Scheme 25. Of the 1,781 patients 75 (4%) were allergic to cosmetic products, so the one reaction constituted 1.4% of this group (De Groot 1987). Although it can be oxidized, and oxidized linalool can be sensitizing, we do not know how readily linalool oxidizes in essential oil mixtures, fragrances or personal care products, especially those containing antioxidants. There were no changes at the lowest dose, except for transient erythema and depressed activity.
The linalool m/z 93 ion (common to monoterpenes) is shown in all cases. This would not dramatically increase the time taken to process small batches samples, but might be more problematic for the analysis of large numbers of samples. Values represent mean ± SEM (n = 3). A full-length ApLS1 cDNA was cloned into the binary vector pHEX2 and introduced by transformation into A. tumefaciens. It was also active against human leukemia K562 cells (Chiang et al 2003). The amount of linalool is expressed as μg (g fresh weight)− 1 (gFW − 1). Linalool demonstrated anticonvulsant and antiglutamatergic activity, and reduced seizures as part of O. basilicum EO after exposure to pentylenetetrazole, picrotoxin, and strychnine (Elisabetsky, Marschner, & Souza, 1995; Ismail, 2006). Biotransformation of racemic trans-pyranoid linalool oxide (82a and 82a′) and racemic cis-pyranoid linalool oxide (82b and 82b′) by Glomerella cingulata. Basil essential oil composition can vary, depending on a number of parameters inherent to the cultivation sites and practices, and results in there being several chemotypes. These products include insect sprays, pet dips, shampoos, and soaps. Microphyllum 17.3%. The simplest set of cyclic monoterpenes are the p-menthane type, which result from alternate, direct deprotonations of the α-terpinyl carbocation (31) (Scheme 9) to generate limonene (6) or terpinolene (7) or, involve water capture to generate α-terpineol (10) (which following protonation of the C–C double bond (of α-terpineol) and internal addition leads to 1,8-cineole (11)). It possesses enzyme inducing and sedative properties. Linalool has antioxidant properties (Celik & Ozkaya 2002). The action of eucalyptus oil will undoubtedly reflect that of 1,8-cineole. USA.gov. Furthermore, linalool decreased K+-stimulated glutamate release and uptake in mouse synaptosomes (Silva Brum, Emanuelli, Souza, & Elisabetsky, 2001). 3.3) showed linalool production was detectable over the 3- to 14-day postinfiltration sampling period with the highest levels occurring at 5-day postinfiltration (0.46 μg gFW− 1 h− 1). These compounds caused a 25% fall in systolic pressure, in doses from 9.2–26.3 mg/kg, when administered iv to dogs in an emulsion ( Northover & Verghese 1962 ).
Linalool was active against all of nine carcinoma cell lines tested, with the most potent activity against cancers of the cervix (HeLa, IC50 0.37 μg/mL), stomach (AGS, IC50 14.1 μg/mL), skin (BCC-1/KMC, IC50 14.9 μg/mL) lung (H520, IC50 21.5 μg/mL) and bone (U2OS, IC50 21.7 μg/mL). Biotransformation of linalool (63) by Pseudomonas incognita and Streptomyces albus NRRL B1865.
Thyme at top of mountain: high in linalool, better quality safe oil from stronger plants. In male and female mice given 24 ip injections of linalool in tricaprylin in a total dose of 0.6 or 3.0 g/kg over 24 weeks the incidence of primary lung tumors was no higher than in the control group (Stoner et al 1973). No fetal toxicity or teratogenicity was seen at any dose. There were no reactions to 30% linalool in 179 dermatitis patients suspected of allergy to cosmetics (De Groot et al 1985). Robert H. Poppenga, in Veterinary Herbal Medicine, 2007. Biotransformation of (R)-(−)-linalool (63′) by Aspergillus niger ATCC 9142. Linalool (LN) is an acyclic monoterpene alcohol that exerted its antiproliferative activity against various cancer cells via the mevalonate pathway . The risk to the general population is therefore negligible.
Acute toxicity: The acute oral LD50 has been reported as 2.79 g/kg in rats (Jenner et al 1964) and 2.2, 3.5 and 3.92 g/kg in mice (Letizia et al 2003a). There were no positive reactions to 97% pure linalool tested at 20%, or to oxidized linalool tested at 1%, either in 21 dermatitis patients hypersensitive to fragrance, or in 66 hand eczema patients (Matura et al 2005). (S)-(+)-Linalool (63) makes up 60–70% of coriander oil. Of 1,200 dermatitis patients patch tested, there were no irritant reactions and no allergic reactions to 5% linalool (Santucci et al 1987). Several products containing citrus oils are marketed to control ticks, fleas, and other insects. The other cancers were mouth, kidney, lung (H661), and bladder (Cherng et al 2007). Hypersalivation, muscle tremors, ataxia, lateral recumbency, coma, and death were noted experimentally in three cats following use of the dip according to label directions. Of the dose, 58% was excreted in the urine, 23% in the expired air (principally as CO2) and 15% in the feces (much of this following excretion into the bile). Neither linalool nor dihydrolinalool are protein-reactive compounds, and the sensitization potency of repurified linalool was considerably reduced (Basketter et al 2002b).
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