The future is bright for insect monitoring, with new technologies coming online for the study of insect abundance. Despite many existing challenges and pitfalls, opportunities for creative exploitation of existing baseline data (Bonebrake et al., 2010; Habel et al., 2019; Stepanian et al., 2020) and novel computational approaches (e.g.

Converse examples of lower baseline levels in earlier time intervals, such as those found for moth biomass in the United Kingdom by Macgregor et al. At single sites, although, White (2019) showed that at least 15 time points are required to have sufficient statistical power to detect non‐random trends in abundance through time, with shorter time series only having sufficient power when the trend slope is unusually steep and inter‐annual variability in abundance unusually low (cf. Learning at home: information for teachers, PV2.20: Exploring tens, hundreds and thousands in numbers, PV2.30: Algorithms for addition and subtraction. In rarer cases, the opposite pattern of negative density dependence in dispersal rates has also been shown in some damselfly species with unusual habitat requirements (Chaput‐Bardy et al., 2010), or where conspecifics are potentially used as cues for habitat quality (Roquette & Thompson, 2007).

There is a tendency to take a few kernels of local data and expand these into a superficially inflated shell of population response as a whole. Nevertheless, the past remains dark due to the paucity of data.

the missing zero effect referred to above), such that local declines are not representative of changes in either occupancy or average abundance across the region. At local scales, the missing zero effect squanders the opportunity to measure future recolonisation of unoccupied sites, through (i) natural processes associated with spatially structured population dynamics (Ovaskainen & Saastamoinen, 2018; Dallas et al., 2020), (ii) rehabilitation of sites following mitigation of threatening processes (e.g. Walther et al., 2009; Hill et al., 2012; Hill et al., 2017; Rabl et al., 2017). Estimates of population change can be sensitive to selection bias effects in the choice of contemporary time‐points, much as described for false baseline effects above. (b) The goals of citizen science monitoring programmes vary on a continuum ranging from high emphasis on broad public engagement and education (e.g. 1). The same logic could potentially be used for right‐censoring short‐time series to overcome bias in contemporary snapshot effects (Fig. climate‐driven range expansions), but they are unavoidably weak when the focal variable is abundance. Using place value to solve addition and subtraction problems. This interactive learning module supports students to explore using place value to solve addition and subtraction problems. Understanding place value of two- and three-digit numbers. 1). Develop understanding of some benchmark numbers to 1000. Equally, going forward, a number of key recommendations will be important to consider in monitoring prospective time series of recovery in insect populations following mitigation of threatening processes (Harvey, The range of complementary data sets that feed into entomological monitoring initiatives. Nesta and the Missing Zero by .

The decline may well be real, but at face value, the data provide no indication whether abundance in the next time‐interval will be lower or higher than current estimates – and what is a time series of decline for, if not to improve predictive power to understand future population change? However, many strategies for computation require a nested view of place value. At this time, there is no way of quantifying the magnitude of the collective bias that the seven issues identified here might create in insect time series data, or whether published decline estimates are typically under‐estimates or over‐estimates of true population change without conducting a formal meta‐analysis across studies (using standardised metrics, which are not readily available).



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