18 U.S.C. and Supp. We granted certiorari, 526 U.S. 1111 (1999), and now reverse. When we granted certiorari in this case, the DPPA provided that a DMV could obtain that consent either on a case-by-case basis or could imply consent if the State provided drivers with an opportunity to block disclosure of their personal information when they received or renewed their licenses and drivers did not avail themselves of that opportunity. Congress found that many States, in turn, sell this personal information to individuals and businesses. In New York and Printz, we held federal statutes invalid, not because Congress lacked legislative authority over the subject matter, but because those statutes violated the principles of federalism contained in the Tenth Amendment.

The DPPA permits DMVs to disclose personal information from motor vehicle records for a number of purposes. 29466, 29468, 29469 (1993); 140 Cong. The Seventh and Tenth Circuits had held that the DPPA was constitutional because it was a valid exercise of the Commerce Clause powers and did not violate the Tenth Amendment.

See Travis v. Reno, 163 F.3d 1000,

Brief for Petitioners 1(a), 2(a). The United States bases its Commerce Clause argument on the fact that the personal, identifying information that the DPPA regulates is a "thin[g] in interstate commerce," and that the sale or release of that information in interstate commerce is therefore a proper subject of congressional regulation.

He held that 1) the DPPA was an acceptable exercise of Congress' powers under the Commerce Clause, because drivers' information was an "article of interstate commerce" within the terms of the Act, and 2) the DPPA did not "commandeer" state authority in the manner which the statutes involved in New York v. United States and Printz v. United States did. reno v. CONDON State departments of motor vehicles (DMVs) require drivers and automobile owners to provide personal information, which may include a person's name, address, telephone number, vehicle description, Social Security number, medical information, and photograph, as a condition of obtaining a driver's license or registering an automobile.

Ibid.

See 972 F. Supp. The Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit affirmed, concluding that the Act violates constitutional principles of federalism. Ibid. I, §8, cl. We of course begin with the time-honored presumption that the DPPA is a "constitutional exercise of legislative power."

When we granted certiorari in this case, the DPPA provided that a DMV could obtain that consent either on a case-by-case basis or could imply consent if the State provided drivers with an opportunity to block disclosure of their personal information when they received or renewed their licenses and drivers did not avail themselves of that opportunity.

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