However, the mechanisms involved for alkyl halides are quite How would you distinguish spectroscopically between the following isomer pairs? Aldehydes and ketones: Reactions of enolate ions, Aldehydes and ketones: Reduction and oxidation, Aldehydes and ketones: α,β-Unsaturated aldehydes and ketones, Structure and properties of Carboxylic acids and carboxylic acid derivatives, Reactivity of Carboxylic acids and carboxylic acid derivatives, Preparations of carboxylic acid derivatives, Reactions of Carboxylic acids and carboxylic acid derivatives, Enolate reactions - Carboxylic acids and carboxylic acid derivatives, Preparation and physical properties of alkyl halides. Nucleophilic substitutions are reactions which involve the substitution of one nucleophile for another nucleophile. (FIGURE CANNOT COPY), Butacetin is an analgesic (pain-killing) agent that is synthesized commercially from $p$ -fluoronitrobenzene.

highly reactive, so they are only formed with difficulty.

(a) Draw two resonance structures of diazomethane, and account for step $1 .$(b) What kind of reaction occurs in step $2 ?$.

(EQUATION CANNOT COPY), The step-growth polymer nylon 6 is prepared from caprolactam.

different from those involved for carboxylic acids and their derivatives.

Identify the nucleophile, the leaving group, the starting acid derivative, and the ultimate product.

Treatment of 5 -aminopentanoic acid with DCC (dicyclohexylcarbodiimide) yields a lactam. ), One frequently used method for preparing methyl esters is by reaction of carboxylic acids with diazomethane, $\mathrm{CH}_{2} \mathrm{N}_{2}$. $S_{N} 2$ reaction of the disodium salt of bisphenol A with epichlorohydrin forms a "prepolymer," which is then "cured" by treatment with a triamine such as $\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{NCH}_{2} \mathrm{CH}_{2} \mathrm{NHCH}_{2} \mathrm{CH}_{2} \mathrm{NH}_{2}$. Explain. different from those involved for carboxylic acids and their derivatives. This explains how the prod-ucts are formed, but why The hydrolysis of a biological thioester to the corresponding carboxylate is often more complex than the overall result might suggest. The best explanation for this involves look-ing at the Draw the structure of a segment of Kevlar. The The final stage C–H σ bonds are not easily broken.

chloride ion as a fourth lone pair of electrons.

(FIGURE CANNOT COPY). %%EOF One step in the gluconeogenesis pathway for the biosynthesis of glucose is the partial reduction of 3 -phosphoglycerate to give glyceraldehyde 3 -phosphate.



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